Volume 3 (2020)

Cover of issue 3 of JHIE.

Front Matter

Editorial, Prologues, etc.

Arquier, Bernard:

La Grande Ourse et les Constellations du Nord: Une Typologie

As a main constellation of the northern sky, Msḫtyw is depicted under various forms: foreleg on the coffins of the Middle Kingdom, bull, or composite figure. The aim of this paper is to study why one form or another is chosen, according to the place (tomb, royal or non royal, or temple) and according to the period.

Dallas, Themis G.:

The Ancient Skyscape over the Temple of Isis at Stobi

The Temple of Isis at Stobi dates from the first half of the 2nd Century AD. In the present paper, we study the skyscape over the temple at the era of its construction and conclude that it may have been oriented in such a way as to allow sacred Egyptian stars to shine on the water of the underground crypt and purify it.

᾿El-Gabry, Dina:

The Stela of Renefres and his Family in the Grand Egyptian Museum (CG 20322)

We publish a stela currently located in the Grand Egyptian Museum in Cairo. CG 20322 belongs to Renefres, the overseer of sandal-makers. The piece alludes to a sequence of well–known non–royal titles of the late Middle Kingdom. A unique feature of the stela is the order of the title zš wr n ḫnrt instead of zš n ḫnrt wr. Unfortunately, the provenance is unknown, but it most likely originated from Thebes. The object in question also sheds light on the genealogy of the family of Renefres. CG 20322 can be dated back to the late Middle Kingdom, based on its linguistic and stylistic features along with the preponderance of the titles and the names mentioned

Ezzat, Azza:

Political Caricature and Satire among Egyptian Royalties and Foreigners in the Egyptian Art

Ancient Egyptians’ drawings were very accurate, and at the same time spirited. Their caricatures were as excellent as their serious drawings, some of which deal with the foreigners and enemies who were subject to satire or irony, or deals with caricaturing kings and queens. This great history had preserved numerous images and illustrations as well that reflect the humorous situations of the ancient Egyptians and their love to caricature, whether they represent their political, economic or social conditions. Ancient Egyptians depended on sarcasm and irony, in order to criticize and mock the social and political situations in their society. What these images could have meant to the ancient Egyptians is a comparative matter of discussion. This paper will differentiate between the definitions of «caricature» and «satire» to give a better understanding for the satirical intent of the artists. It will also raise other questions as: do these drawings are indeed satirical used for Egyptian royalties and foreigners in the Egyptian art? This will be presented through two main perspectives: political caricature and satire among kings and queens; and among foreigners and captives.

Guilhou, Nadine:

Représentations de Nout dans les Tombes Thébaines de Particuliers

The goddess Nut is depicted in different ways in the Theban tombs of individuals. She is particularly related to water, most often through the icon of the nourishing tree, but also in relation to the pool. Another main component is her cosmic dimension, highlighted by her presence on the ceilings and her role in the solar journey, grasping the Sun of her arms at night to rebirth it in her womb and bring it back into the world in the morning.  The paper provides a synthesis of these different topics.

Maravelia, Alicia:

Hermopolis and the Moon: Astronomic and Cosmographic Texts from the Abode of Thoth

The Moon, as a satellite of the Earth and a prominent heavenly body, was always playing an important part in the mind of ancient people. The Egyptians ―with their pre–scientific, yet very keen observational ways, based on cosmographic allegories and deep religious feeling―  were particularly intrigued by the Moon and its peculiar motion on the celestial sphere. This is why in their religious and funerary texts the Moon is met numerous times, literally or metaphorically, as the Celestial Ferryman, whose movement on the Ecliptic was observed and described in a vivid metaphorical way. Hermopolis was the principal cult–centre of the lunar god Thoth, although the gods Iah and Khonsou were in principle the main lunar gods, as well as Isis during the Ptolemaic Period. There are no Hermopolitan Astronomical Texts per se; however, Hermopo­lis, but especially Thoth and the Moon, are met numerous times in the funerary texts of ancient Egypt (mainly in the PT, CT, BD), where astronomical and cosmographic elements abound. These referen­ces are found either in a direct astronomical way or as a way to provide rich funerary offerings to the decea­sed in their celestial hereafter on the main monthly feasts that were celebrated on the basis of the lunar cycle and the phases of the Moon. In this paper we are going to examine characteristic cases of these instan­ces main­ly based on the PT and the CT and we are going to present related archaeoastronomical simulations, recon­structing the ancient lunar skyscapes and discussing the results.

Norris, Pauline:

Brief Observations on Coat Colours of Ancient Egyptian Horses: Symbolism and Potential for tracing the Origin of a Type of Horse

This short paper offers some observations, based on tomb paintings and a number of artefacts, concerning the symbolism associated with the coat colours of the domestic horse in Egypt and it is suggested that the study of the coat colours may also further our knowledge of the origins of this useful animal in Egypt.

Sadek el-Gendi, Sherin:

La Circoncision et l'Excision chez les Coptes: Études Historique et Comparative

The aim of these pages is to provide a sufficient idea concerning the circumcision and the excision of the Copts. Important studies have been generally already presented on this topic. From the earliest ancient and modern times, the circumcision of the boys and the excision of the girls were and are still practiced in Egypt until now, particularly in the villages and in the popular areas. Our interest is to clear firstly the meaning of these chirurgical operations. Then, we shall give a long survey about their history in Egypt and their different types. It is important also to study the origin of these customs, the reasons of their accomplishment in general by the Egyptians and especially by the Copts, their different steps to which a particular importance is attached and their various influences on both sexes. We shall be based essentially on the studies already done before, in order to find the link between the past and the present and in order to know why the Coptic community continued until now to practice the circumcision. Perhaps we shall be able to go farther with a deep comparative and analytical study in other religions and civilizations and of some precious artistic scenes conserved in some archeological sites in Egypt and abroad to give to the specialists and to the readers a complete idea of the essential goal of these operations for the Copts.

Sales, José das Candeias Montes:

Petosiris, «The Pharaoh»: A Usurper or a Restorer of the Order?

In the textual inscriptions of the inner chapel of the Τomb of Petosiris at Tuna ᾽el-Gebel and in the iconography of the outer halls of the facade there are several traces of the use by this high priest of epithets and expressions associated with the pharaonic protocol, as well as the performance of typical functions and ritual acts traditionally performed by the Egyptian pharaoh. Never before had been witnessed such political audacity. Does the disappearance of the traditional indigenous central power, close, strong and effective, caused by the Second Persian Domination, and the political and administrative disorders around the ancient city of Hermopolis Magna explain this usurpation of functions and privileges? Is this merely a case of abuse of potestas sacerdotalis? Are we before an exceptional example of priestly consciousness due to the decline of the traditional pharaonic royal model?

Tarasenko, Mykola:

The Vignettes of Chapter 17 from the Book Of The Dead as Found in the Papyrus of Nakht (London Bm Ea 10471): At the Beginning of the Ramesside Iconographic Tradition

The first known case of the illustrated Chapter 17 of the Book of the Dead from the post-Amarna time is represented by the vignettes in the papyrus of Nakht (; London BM EA 10471, end of the 18th Dynasty). Stylistics and grouping of vignettethe Ramesside Period. Illustrations to the Chapter 17 in this papyrus of demonstrate a creative moment of the illustrative frieze of this spell formation,

Tsourinaki, Sophia:

A Re–Evaluation of a Hooded Tunic at the Benaki Museum

The Benaki Museum comprises a fine collection of Late Antique textiles, covering a period that extends roughly from the 3rd to the 10th Century AD. The focus of this paper is set on a virtually complete child’s tunic with hood, which stands out for a number of reasons: 1. the examination of its subject matter and workmanship gives an impressive idea of the textile production in Egypt; 2. the stylistic analysis attests to the tenacity of the classical Hellenic tradition in the early Byzantine era. A full description of the garment is presented here, the weaving procedure and the type of loom used. For the scope of this study and in order to place the results in a broader historical and comparative context, the content of papyri from the Hellenistic–Roman Period was carefully examined.

Youssef, Youhanna Nessim:

Comparing the Holy Liturgy between Copts and Hellēnes

This article evokes the liturgical connections between Coptic and Hellenic Orthodox (Byzantine) traditions. It starts with an introduction about the beginning of Christianity in Egypt. The next sections are an enumeration and a brief study of the contact places of such exchanges.

Maravelia, Alicia:

Book Review: The Tomb of Tutankhamun

Book Review: Carter, Howard: The Tomb of Tutankhamun (Introduced by David P. Silverman), London (The Folio Society) 12013, 22014, Volume 1 (Text: 428 + xx pages) & Volume 2 (The Treasures: 122 pages), without ISBN.

Guilhou, Nadine:

Book Review: MondSymbolik – MondWissen

Book Review: MondSymbolik – MondWissen: Lunare Konzepte in den ägyptischen Tempeln griechisch–römischer Zeit, Wiesbaden (Harrassowitz Verlag / Studien zur spätägyptischen Religion 22) 2018, 1-2, ISBN 978–3–447–11136–2.

Dallas, Themis G.:

Book Review: The Interactions of Ancient Astral Science

Book Review: Brown, David (Editor | With Contributions from Jonathan Ben–Dov, Henry Falk, Geoffrey Lloyd, Raymond Mercier, Antonio Panaino, Joachim Quack, Alexandra von Lieven & Michio Yano): The Interactions of Ancient Astral Science, Bremen (Hempen Verlag) 2018, 896 + x pages, ISBN 978–3–944312–55–2.

Maravelia, Alicia:

Book Review: Prolegomena to the Lyric Poetry of Ancient Hellēnes

Book Review: Κονομής, Νικόλαος / Konomis, Nikolaos: Προλεγόμενα στὴ Λυρικὴ Ποίηση τῶν Ἀρχαίων Ἑλλήνων / Prolegomena to the Lyric Poetry of Ancient Hellēnes, Ἀθήνα / Athens (Ἐκδόσεις Καλλιγράφος / Calligraphos Editions) 2018, 522 pages, ISBN 978–960–9568–58–6.

Maravelia, Alicia:

Obituary: Amphilochios Radović

Obituary for the Most Reverent Metropolitan of Montenegro and the Littoral, Mgr Dr Amphilochios Radović (1938-2020): Spiritual Father, Teacher, Worthy Orthodox Bishop and the Soul of Montenegro

David, Arlette:

Obituary: Raphael Ventura

Obituary for Dr Raphael Ventura (1937-2020): Egyptologist, Teacher and Friend